The Drugs WheelExpand Menu

The Drugs Wheel is discussed in the Open Access peer-reviewed paper, Jump-starting the conversation about harm reduction: making sense of drug effects, published by Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. Citation:

Adley, Mark; Jones, Guy & Measham, Fiona (2023) Jump-starting the conversation about harm reduction: making sense of drug effects, Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 30:4, 347-360, DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2021.2013774

Link to DEPP paper

References in published literature

Bascombe F., et al. (2023). Methamphetamine and emerging drugs of concern: A training needs analysis of Australian alcohol and other drug helplines. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2023 Jul 15. doi: 10.1111/dar.13719.

Bennett K.H., Hare H.M., Waller R.M., et al. (2017). Characteristics of NPS use in patients admitted to acute psychiatric services. Southeast Scotland: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis following public health interventions. BMJ Open, 7(12), pp. e015716–e015716.

Charlton, J., Albanese, A. & Brodie, L. (2018). The challenges of type 1 diabetes and new psychoactive substance misuse. Practical Diabetes International. 35(3), pp. 81–85a.

Chavance, P., Jost, D., Briche, F. and Travers, S. (2023). Stupéfiants et nouveaux produits de synthèse: les produits, leurs effets, l’intoxication aiguë et sa prise en charge. Le Praticien en Anesthésie Réanimation. 2(5), pp. 301-319.

Fletcher, E., Tasker, S., Easton, P. & Denvir, L. (2015). Improving the help and support provided to people who take new psychoactive substances (‘legal highs’). Journal of Public Health, 38(4), pp. e489–e495.

Gilani, Dr. F. (2015). ‘Legal highs’: Novel psychoactive substances. InnovAiT, 8(12), 717–724. DOI: 10.1177/1755738015612509.

Macdonald, I. (2019). Teen Substance Use, Mental Health and Body Image: Practical Strategies for Support. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Marillier, M. & Verstraete, A. (2019). Driving under the influence of drugs. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Forensic Science, 1(3), p.e1326.

Marwick, K. (2019) Crash Course Psychiatry Fifth Edition, p.82. Elsevier ISBN: 9780702073830.

Measham, F. & Newcombe, R. (2016). What's So ‘New’ About New Psychoactive Substances? Definitions, Prevalence, Motivations, User Groups and A Proposed New Taxonomy. The SAGE Handbook of Drug and Alcohol Studies. 1(33), Editors: Torsten Kolind, Betsy Thom, Geoffrey Hunt. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Potter. G. R. & Chatwin, C. (2018). Not particularly special: critiquing ‘NPS’ as a category of drugs. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 25:4, 329-336, DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2017.1411885.

Solomon, D., Grierson, J., Godier-McBard, L. and Guirguis, A., (2023). Experience and views of healthcare professionals towards people who use new psychoactive substances: Evidence from statutory, non-statutory, and private mental health and addiction healthcare services. Human Psychopharmacology, p.e2883, DOI: 10.1002/hup.2883.

Span, C., Farah, B., Ivetìc, N. and Stronach, O. (2023). A Scoping Review of Australian Literature on People Who Use MDMA and Their Harm Reduction Practices, Contemporary Drug Problems,  0(0).

Tavares, Ana & Caetano, Ana & Teixeira, Mónica & Santos, Clara. (2023). Serviço Social e Comportamentos Aditivos e Dependências: O papel das Políticas de Intervenção Social Addictive Behaviors and Dependencies: The role of Social Intervention Policies. Revista Temas Sociais. 5. 115-127.

The Drugs Wheel in use

Home Office Resource Pack

Scottish Government New Psychoactive Substances Review

Scottish Drugs Forum

Training Curriculum: New Psychoactive Substances in Europe State of Affairs, Trends and Developments

CREW 2000: new psychoactive drugs booklet


The Drugs Wheel in the press/media/reports

The Society for the Study of Addiction

L'Express: Enquête sur les nouvelles drogues de synthèse

Ingredientes del tusi y adulterantes en MDMA: Informe de resultados de análysis confirmativo GC/MS








Spotted in the background of Grayson Perry's 'All Man' series for C4 by an eagle-eyed Drugs Wheel user!




The Drugs Wheel in use by Crew2000 at the What's Up 2013 event.